Health Care Reformmedical reform
Healthcare reform is a general heading that is used to discuss the establishment or modification of important health policies - mostly government policies that affect the provision of health services in a particular place.... The health care reform tries typically: Hawaii and Massachusetts have both introduced some discretionary healthcare reform, but no state has full cover for its people.
2 ] To date, the U.S. National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws has not produced unified laws or standard laws on health care or health reform. Health care was reorganized in 1948 after the Second World War, largely in the spirit of the 1942 Beveridge Report, with the establishment of the National Health Service or NHS.
Initially, it was set up as part of a broader reform of welfare systems and financed by a system of welfare insurance, although the maintenance of health care was never dependent on National Insurance Fund contribution. Personal health care was not phased out, but had to face competition from the NHS. Approximately 15% of all health expenditure in the UK is still financed indirectly, but this figure still covers patients' contribution to NHS -supplied medicines, so that the level of health care provided by the UK privatesector is quite low.
In the context of a more comprehensive reform of welfare, it was initially assumed that the emphasis would be on preventing diseases as well as treating them. For example, the NHS would dispense vitamin- and mineral-enriched infant food milks to help enhance the health of postwar babies and other nutritional supplementation such as cod-liver oil and malted foods.
Since 1974, the NHS has undergone many reform measures. Conservative Thatcher administration tried to introduce NHS competitiveness by playing a supply and buy function between hospital supply and health care authority buy function. Labour generally rejected these changes, although the Blair administration, after the New Labour had become the Labour, maintained and even expanded competitive features so that NHS work could be provided by NHS health care services.
Today, some centers for diagnosis and therapy are run by privately owned companies and financed under contracts. Gordon Brown's administration suggested new care reform in England. The first is to get the NHS back towards health care by addressing problems that are known to cause long-term diseases.
A second reform is to make the NHS a more individual ised and to negotiate with physicians to offer more care at hours that are more comfortable for the patients, such as in the evening and at the weekend. It is this individual approach to health care that would lead to periodic health checks so that the general public is examined more frequently.
Physicians will give more advise on disease preventative measures (e.g. encourage and support clients to manage their weights, eat, move more, quit tobacco, etc.) to address issues before they become more serious. There are several different paths a nation could take when considering reforms, as the wide diversity of health care regimes around the globe shows.
Compared to Great Britain, doctors in Germany have more negotiating powers through specialist organisations (e.g. medical associations); this negotiating capacity has an impact on reform work. On the other side, the Swiss tend to use private health insurances, where among other things individuals are at risky according to gender and gender (Belien 90).
In the United States, the US administration provides health care to just over 25% of its residents through various public authorities, but does not use any other system. Health care generally focuses on privately funded health care. Reducing health care scams and abuses is a core element of health care reform. Estimates in the US and EU suggest that up to 10 per cent of all health care transaction and spending can be deceptive.
Fraud in the health sector and what to do (Cornell University Press, 2011). The oldest health system in the whole wide range and its pros and cons are also interesting, see Health in Germany. See "Getting the Health Care Reform Right: Marc Roberts, William Hsiao, Peter Berman and Michael Reich of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health want to give decision-makers instruments and framework conditions for reforming the health care system.
You suggest five "control buttons" for health reform: funding, payments, organisation, regulations and behaviour. Those dials relate to the "mechanisms and process that the reformer can adapt to enhance system performance". These buttons were chosen by the author as representing the most important determinants that a decision maker can influence to measure health system performance.
Its methodology stresses the importance of "the explicit identification of objectives, the systematic diagnosis of causes of underperformance and the development of reform that brings about genuine changes in performance". Health care system as a means to an end. Accordingly, the writers endorse three inherent health system targets that can be set via the rotary buttons.
State of health: The objective relates to the overall health condition of the targeted populations, evaluated on the basis of indicators such as longevity, morbidity and/or their spread among subpopulations. It is about the level of contentment that the health system generates in the targeted group. The objective relates to the capacity of the health system to prevent the targeted group from the cost of bad health or illness.
They also suggest three interim indicators that are useful in measuring the output of system targets but are not definitive. Whilst the ultimate targets are largely in place, other framework conditions suggest alternate milestones such as fairness, productiveness, security, innovativeness and choice. These five buttons reflect the mechanism and process by which political decision-makers can shape health reform effectively.
Not only are these buttons the most important element of a health care system, they are also the element that can be consciously adapted through reform to influence changes. There are five operating buttons: Funding that includes all fundraising mechanism and activity for the health system.
In terms of mechanism, the funding button will include, inter alia, health-related taxation, health care premium and disbursements. Assets refer to the organisation that gathers funds and disseminates them to health care stakeholders. Or in other words, funding is about the resource available to the health system, who monitors it and who gets it.
It has a clear impact on the health situation of the populations and specific groups within them, as well as on health care accessibility and prevention of health risks for these groups and the general public. Disbursements refer to the mechanism and process by which the health care system or the patient distributes funds to service contributors, which includes charges, per capita lump sums and budget from the state and charges payable by the patient.
Paying is about distributing the available resource to the health service provider. Healthcare reform can provide a wide range of incentives for suppliers and caregivers to optimise scarce resource allocation. The organization of health care relates to the organization of suppliers, their role, activity and surgery.
The company basically explains how the health care system is structured: who are the suppliers, who are the customers, who are the competition and who operates it? Organisational changes in a health care system take place at several different tiers, both at the front and at the management tier. Regulatory action means action at the state or agency scale that changes or alters the behaviour of various health care stakeholders.
Stakeholders can be health service provider, physicians' association, consumer, insurance agent and more. The behaviour of health care stakeholders encompasses both activities of service suppliers (e.g. doctor behaviour) and of clients (e.g. anti-smoking campaigns) and comprises "changes in personal behaviour through population-based interventions". Health care reform in terms of behaviour focuses on behaviour that can be used to enhance the results and services of the health care system.
Such behaviours shall be health-addicted behaviour, conduct by professionals, conduct by physicians, adherence to guidelines for care, lifestyles and preventive behaviour. However, the health reform's five buttons are not isolated; the health reform may involve setting more than one button or several buttons at a time. Moreover, there is no commonly accepted sequence of buttons to obtain certain reform or results.
The health care reform will vary according to attitude and reform from one contexts need not necessarily be applicable in another. Importantly, the buttons interacted with culture and structure that are not presented here, but that have an important impact on health care reform in a particular contexts.
To sum up, it can be said that the writers of Getting Health Reform Right: The A Guide to Improving Performance and Equity proposes a health system assessment frame that will guide decision-makers' understandings of the reform cycle. There are many conditions for health reform in the relevant scientific journals. Roberts, Hsiao, Berman and Reich suggested a holistic yet highly reactive mindset that would allow decision-makers to better define the "mechanisms and processes" that can be modified to improve health, client experience and reduce risks.
"Weltgesundheitsstatistik 2009". The World Health Organization. Field, M. G. The health and demography crises in post-Soviet Russia: a two-stage evolution in "Russia's Torn Safety Nets", published by Field M. G., Twigg J. L. (ed.). Health in the Russian Federation Highlights" (PDF). The World Health Organization. Public expenditure in Russia on health care: questions and options (PDF).
"Economical and health advantages of a new tobacco control system in Taiwan: a simulated CGE model". Public Health BMC. Making health care reform right: a guideline for the improvement of service and justice. Comparison of the health care system's performance: A political, information and research agenda: A political, information and research agendas.