National Health InsuranceHealth insurance
The National Health Insurance (NHI) - sometimes referred to as the SHI - is a health insurance system that covers a national populace against the cost of health services. This can be managed by the puplic sectors, the privatesector or a mixture of both. The national or state health insurance does not correspond to the state or state-financed health insurance, but is usually determined by national laws.
However, in some jurisdictions, such as Australia's Medicare system, the UK's National Health Service and the South Korean National Health Insurance Corporation's contribution to the system, the contribution is made through general tax and is therefore not voluntary, although it is not possible to use the health system it provides. If the NHI provides for a selection from several insurance trusts, the contribution rate may differ and the individual must select the insurance trusts to which they wish to be affiliated.
It has the oldest national system of health insurance in the world, the origin of which goes back to Otto von Bismarck's Health Insurance Act of 1883. In Britain, the National Insurance Act 1911 contained a national insurance scheme for first aid (no special or institutional care), at first for about one third of the working classes, but not for their families.
This health insurance system remained in place until the National Health Department was set up in 1948, which established a general health care system financed not by insurance but by general taxes, which provided health care to all lawful inhabitants. The national health insurance programmes differ both in the way in which the funds are recovered and in the way in which the health care is provided.
In the United States, this is known as single-payer health coverage. Service delivery can take place either through public or private healthcare serviceisers. A similar system of mandatory contribution is introduced in France, but the survey is carried out by non-profit making bodies established for this purpos. Another financing option is when a country implements national health insurance through regulations that require mandatory premiums from rival insurance companies.
Those trusts (which may be managed by publicly funded institutions, privately owned for-profit enterprises or privately owned non-profit enterprises) must offer a guaranteed level of cover and must not create discrimination between beneficiaries by levying different levels according to patient ages, professions or prior state of health. In order to safeguard the interests of both the patient and the insurance company, the authorities set up a compensation fund to distribute the risk among the various sums.
Governments can also participate in the equalisation fund as a health grant. Others are largely financed by employer and employee health insurance contribution. In these programmes the funding comes neither from the authorities nor from individual grants. As a rule, these resources are not intended for profitable institutes which operate exclusively for the good of their members.
As a rule, characterisation is a question of degree: schemes are hybrid forms from these three capital resources (private, employer-employee contribution and national/sub-national taxes). As well as providing immediate health care benefits, some national insurance schemes also offer cover for sick leave or can be part of a broader welfare plan that covers things such as retirement, redundancy, retraining and student funding.
A national system has the benefit that the size of the basin or basins is usually very large and reflects the national people. Medical expenses, which tends to be high at certain phases of one' s lifecycle, such as during gestation and birth, and especially in the last years of one' s existence, can be added to the fund throughout one' s entire lifecycle and are higher when one' s earning power is at its highest in order to cover those expenses which arise during periods of low or non-existent earning power.
However, this is different from the situation in some jurisdictions where there is a tendency for insurance companies to assess health risk, such as old age, familial background, pre-existing conditions and size/weight ratio, from year to year. For example, some individuals have a tendency to need to pay more for their health insurance in the event of illness and/or are least able to finance it.
Within privately owned systems in competitively oriented insurance marketplaces, these insurance company operations tended to act against the fundamental insurance principle of group insurance i. e. mutuality. Japanese Health Services - Persons without employer insurance can take part in a national health insurance programme managed by Japanese government. Health in Switzerland - Mandatory health insurance provides coverage for a number of treatment options that are governed in detail by federal law.
Comparison of health services - Comparison in tables of the USA, Canada and other non-USA nations not shown above. "A long way to universally health insurance. In 1988-105 years after Bismarck's first health insurance legislation, Carrin and James pinpointed the date on which Germany reached universality through this set of enhancements to minimal service package and enhancements to the registered public.
Both Bärnighausen and Sauerborn have measured this long-term gradual rise in the share of the publicly and privately insured Germans. Your chart is shown below as Chart 1: Deutsche Krankenkassengehörige (%) 1885-1995. "Health Insurance. Keys for the Passage to Nationwide Care" (PDF).
The International Social Security Review. First, the Health Insurance Act of 1883 applied to manual labourers in specific sectors, craftsmen and other specific occupational groups. As a result of this Act, it is expected that the share of health insurance in the overall populace has risen from 5 to 10 percent. "Fifteen years of health insurance: Are there teachings for middle and low-income countries?
Sociology & Medicine. Since Germany has the oldest health insurance system in the whole word, it is of course suitable for historic studies. Comparing policies: health policies in four countries. Health Insurance Act (1883). In December 1884 the Health Insurance Act came into force. They provided for mandatory involvement of all workers (i.e. hand workers) in plants, iron and steel works, collieries, shipyards and similar establishments.
1850-1914: The Origins of the Nation State in England and Germany: A Comparison of Societal Policy. "Occupational Health Services in Britain: Prewar Health Services, 1900-1939." healthcare: past, present and into the 21 st centuries (2nd ed.). Mandatory health insurance: Public health policy, 65(1=: 75-98.) Van de Ven, W.P.M.M., Beck, K., Buchner, F. et al. (2003) Health insurance companies in five different EU Member States, health policy, 65(1=: 75-98.
Healthcare for America NOW!.... A stakeholder group that advocates the creation of general health insurance.