Public Health CareHealth care and public services
Variétés de systèmes_publics
Public health care is a type of health finance that aims to cover the costs of all or most health needs from a publically administered health care funds. It may be a non-profit association which provides health care according to members' shared regulations or any other kind of democracy.
A number of jurisdictions control the scheme directly by the governments or by a public authority for the benefits of the whole people. It differs from other types of health care system whose right of recourse is based on contractually agreed commitments between an insurer (or its sponsor) and an assurance firm that aims to make a profit by controlling the cash flows between donors and health care service suppliers.
The majority of industrialised nations have partly or fully public health care schemes. The majority of industrialised economies in the West have a system of compulsory health care schemes built on the principles of economic welfare and societal responsibility, which discourages those entitled to them from paying the brunt of most of the health care costs financed by taxes throughout their working lives. There are many different ways of financing and providing health care among those with significant public resources for health care.
Schemes can be financed from public revenue (as in Canada and the United Kingdom) or through a state welfare system (as in Australia, France, Belgium, Japan and Germany) with a distinct federal purse and hypothetical tax or contribution. In Canada, the entire costs of care in hospitals are borne by the Canadian federal authorities, while in Japan the costs of hospitalisation are borne by the patient at a rate of 10 to 30%.
Public schemes offer different types of service. As an example, the majority of the charges for tooth and eyecare are paid by the State of Belgium, while the State of Australia provides the eyecare but not the upkeep. Privately financed medicines can be managed and provided by the governments, as in the northern European states, Portugal, Spain and Italy; in some schemes medicines are financed by the public purse, but most hospitals are privately owned, as in Canada.
An organisation offering public health care is not necessarily a public body and its budgetary system can be insulated from the state purse. A number of schemes do not offer comprehensive health care or limit care to public health only. A number of public insurers exist in some Member States, such as Germany, and are interconnected by a single regulatory regime.
There are some, such as the Netherlands, that allow participation by individual for-profit underwriters. Nearly every large nation that has a public health system also has a privately owned system for those who have a privately insured health system or who themselves provide care. Since the introduction of the NHS scheme (1948), public UK public hospital facilities have had'comfort beds', which would normally be more comfortable, and residential stations in some hospital facilities which offer more comfort for a charge.
NHS hospitals for surgery are used by those using these wards, and surgery is usually performed in the same operation rooms as NHS work and by the same staff, but the hospitals and doctors get funds from an insurer or the individual concerned. Such comfort cots do not appear in all public financed schemes, for example in Spain.
NHS also reimburses the costs incurred by privately owned clinics for surgery under a single agreement. Lots of nations are striving for the right equilibrium between public and public health insurances, public grants and out-of-court payments. "PUBLIC AND PUBLIC SECTORS' INVOLVEMENTS IN HEALTH SYSTEMS. "Health systems: "US Adult Health and Mortality" (PDF). The American Journal of Public Health.
"Systematically reviewing and meta-analysing trials that compare the death rate of commercial and nonprofit public hospitals". "Nursing care payment in residential and non-residential hospitals: a systemic check and meta-analysis". Physicians supporting healthcare universality: Poll, Reuters, 31 March 2008 (first report in Annals of Internal Medicine). Krauss, C. As Canada's slow public health system comes to a halt, New York Times, 26 February 2006, will see the launch of operations of Consumer Medical Care.