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cHealth ( also referred to as writing eHealth) is a relatively recent healthcare practise, backed up by computer support and communications and dating back to at least 1999. It is argued by some that it is substitutable with healthcare computing, with a wide range of definitions encompassing electronic/digital healthcare processes, while others use it in the narrow meaning of healthcare practices via the web.
4 ] It may also contain healthcare procedures and hyperlinks on cell phone devices known as mHealth or m-Health. eHealth file: allowing different healthcare professions (general practitioners, specialist, etc.) to communicate information on healthcare subjects; telemedicine: physically and psychologically diagnosing and remotely treating healthcare subjects, as well as monitoring healthcare function monitoring; consumers' healthcare informatics: use of eHealth information on healthcare issues by healthcare subjects or healthcare subjects; healthcare intelligence management: e.g.
a review of current healthcare periodicals, best practices policies or epidemiological reporting (examples are Medscape and MDLinx medicine resources); online healthcare teams: composed of healthcare workers who work together via electronic communication tools (for transfusion ) to exchange information about clients; mHealth or m-Health: covers the use of portable gadgets in the collection of overall and patient-related information, the delivery of healthcare information to physicians, scientists and caregivers, the real-time surveillance of bedside environments and the delivery of healthcare services directly (via portable telemedicine); several contributors have noted the variability in the use of the concept, ranging from specificity in the use of the web in healthcare to the general use of computing in healthcare.
Various writers have examined the development of the concept and its use, and how it addresses changes in healthcare computing and healthcare in general. 1 ] Oh et al., in a 2005 systemic examination of the use of the concept, have proposed the concept of eHealth as a range of technology issues in healthcare today, particularly those related to trade, activity, stakeholder groups, results, location or perspective.
One thing that all scholars seem to share is that e-health efforts do not emanate from the patients, although the patients may be members of a patients' organisation that tries to do so, as in the e-patient community. As one of the reasons why the use of e-health is not widely accepted, concerns about private life in medical files, in particular the EPR (Electronic Medical Record), have been identified.
That is the primary issue relating to the privacy of the information. However, there are also concerns about non-confidential information. Every doctor's office has its own technical lingo and its own diagnosis instruments. In order to standardise the information sharing, different encoding methods can be used in conjunction with internationally accepted health care norms. Often health information exchanges (HIE) are termed those dealing with these transfer activities.
There are two kinds of electronic health care: front-end and back-end systems. The front-end replacement usually affects the patients, the back-end replacement does not. An example of a rather easy front-end replacement is a case where a client sends a picture of a surgical cut taken with a cell telephone and e-mailed it to his GP for inspection.
An example of a frequent backend replacement is when a person on holiday goes to see a physician who can then ask for medical information such as medication prescription, x-rays or test results. Successfully launched eHealth initiative such as eDiabetes have shown that a shared task repository is required for exchanging information either at the front-end or at the back-end.
7 ] Various doctor's practices in the field of chronical health services (e.g. for diabetics) already have a clearly delineated framework of concepts and action that facilitates the interchange of standards of communication, regardless of whether the interchange is triggered by the individual or by the nursing staff. Generally, descriptive diagnostical information (such as the standardized ICD-10) can be shared unsecurely, and privacy information (such as the patient's personally identifiable information) must be backed up.
eHealth administers both information streams and at the same ensures the integrity of the information exchanged. People who have been suffering from long-term illnesses (also known as chronic diseases) over the years often gain a high degree of understanding of the process in their own nursing and often become familiar with their state.
The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has found several programmes to be cost-effective for use in neonatal healthcare. There were two programmes funded by the Government of Australia for use in emergency first-aid. Others have been specifically designed as part of research into the treatments of certain diseases.
Attendees can also use a smart phone app to gather self-monitoring information. Another Internet-based response was designed for use after Hurricane Ike in 2009. Those allocated to the interventions received moduls that consisted of information on how to effectively cope with psychological illness and behaviours that pose a threat to human wellbeing.
Cyber medicine is the use of the web to provide health related information such as visits to the doctor and prescription medicines. Cyber medicine is already being used in small scale healthcare deployments where pictures of basic healthcare are transferred to a consultant who will comment on the case and suggest what interventions could help the patien.
It has also been extended to provide on-line "Ask the Doctor" service, which gives the patient immediate, fee-based consultation (of different depth) with healthcare providers (examples included Bundoo.com, Dr. Spring, Teladoc and Ask The Doctor). Selfsupervision is the use of easily accessible sensor s/tools to collect and log information about individuals.
As a rule, the transducers are portable instruments and the moulds are available in digital form via portable instrumentation. Self-checking equipment has been developed to allow the person to be analysed to have immediate access to his or her own information. Exercise and medical surveillance are currently the most common uses of self-monitoring equipment.
The greatest advantage of self-monitoring equipment is the removal of the need for third-party clinics to perform testing that is both costly and time-consuming. This equipment is an important step forward in the area of individual healthcare for all. There are many types of self-monitoring healthcare equipment. Others have greater medicinal significance.
43 ] However, this unit is not as self-contained as the Nike+ Fuel Tape self-monitoring unit because it needs some prior information from the patients before use. There is a rapidly increasing need for self-monitoring healthcare equipment as the use of cordless healthcare technology has become particularly widespread in recent years. It is even anticipated that 80% of cordless healthcare products will be self-monitoring healthcare equipment by 2016.
44 ] The main sales argument for these appliances is the portability of information to the consumer. In the last ten years, the availability of portable equipment such as smart phones and tables has significantly improved. As a result, it has been possible for end user to easily gain control of real-time information across a range of peripherals. The Journal of Medical Internet Research.
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